A Level Sensor is an assembly that is fitted inside a tank, consisting of a PCB with multiple reed contacts and resistors. It is actuated by a foamed float magnet and as the level of the liquid rises or drops, it give out a potentiometric feedback that is a direct measure of the volume of the liquid. The resistor values need to be mathematically selected for various tank shapes, to give an accurate read out of the actual volume remaining in the tank.
Level sensors detect the level of liquids and other fluids and fluidized solids, including slurries, granular materials, and powders that exhibit an upper free surface. Substances that flow become essentially horizontal in their containers (or other physical boundaries) because of gravity whereas most bulk solids pile at an angle of repose to a peak. The substance to be measured can be inside a container or can be in its natural form (e.g., a river or a lake). The level measurement can be either continuous or point values. Continuous level sensors measure level within a specified range and determine the exact amount of substance in a certain place, while point-level sensors only indicate whether the substance is above or below the sensing point. Generally the latter detect levels that are excessively high or low.
There are many physical and application variables that affect the selection of the optimal level monitoring method for industrial and commercial processes. The selection criteria include the physical: phase (liquid, solid or slurry), temperature, pressure or vacuum, chemistry, dielectric constant of medium, density (specific gravity) of medium, agitation (action), acoustical or electrical noise, vibration, mechanical shock, tank or bin size and shape. Also important are the application constraints: price, accuracy, appearance, response rate, ease of calibration or programming, physical size and mounting of the instrument, monitoring or control of continuous or discrete (point) levels. In short, level sensors are one of the very important sensors and play very important role in a variety of consumer/ industrial applications. As with other types of sensors, level sensors are available or can be designed using a variety of sensing principles. Selection of an appropriate type of sensor suiting to the application requirement is very important.