Reed Relays and
Electronics India Limited
Manufacturer of Reed Switches, Reed Sensors and Reed-based products
Reed Relays and Electronics India Limited Incorporated in 1971


Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (Stannum in Latin) and atomic number 50. This silvery, malleable metal is not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion and can easily be soldered.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
tin (noun)
a soft faintly bluish-white lustrous low-melting crystalline metallic element that is malleable and ductile at ordinary temperatures and that is used especially in containers, as a protective coating, in tinfoil, and in soft solders and alloys - see element table
a) a box, can, pan, vessel, or a sheet made of tinplate , broadly such a container of any metal (as aluminum)
b) a metal container and its contents - a tin of tomatoes
tin (verb)
transitive verb
to cover or plate with tin or a tin alloy
to put up or pack in tins - can tinned peaches
TIN (abbreviation)
taxpayer identification number
Tin (Wikipedia)
Tin,  50Sn
left: white, beta, β; right: gray, alpha, α
General properties
Pronunciation /ˈtɪn/
Allotropes alpha, α (gray); beta, β (white)
Appearance silvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Tin in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Atomic number (Z) 50
Group, period group 14 (carbon group), period 5
Block p-block
Element category   post-transition metal
Standard atomic weight (Ar) 118.710(7)
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Melting point 505.08 K ​(231.93 °C, ​449.47 °F)
Boiling point 2875 K ​(2602 °C, ​4716 °F)
Density near r.t. white, β: 7.265 g/cm3
gray, α: 5.769 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.99 g/cm3
Heat of fusion white, β: 7.03 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization white, β: 296.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity white, β: 27.112 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3,2, 1, −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.96
Ionization energies 1st: 708.6 kJ/mol
2nd: 1411.8 kJ/mol
3rd: 2943.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 217 pm
Crystal structure tetragonal
Tetragonal crystal structure for tin

white (β)
Crystal structure face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for tin

gray (α)
Speed of sound thin rod 2730 m/s (at r.t.) (rolled)
Thermal expansion 22.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 66.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 115 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering gray: diamagnetic
white (β): paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) (white) +3.1·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 18 GPa
Bulk modulus 58 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.36
Brinell hardness 50–440 MPa
CAS Number 7440-31-5
Discovery around 3500 BC
Main isotopes of tin
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life Decay mode Pro­duct
112Sn 0.97% is stable with 62 neutrons
114Sn 0.66% is stable with 64 neutrons
115Sn 0.34% is stable with 65 neutrons
116Sn 14.54% is stable with 66 neutrons
117Sn 7.68% is stable with 67 neutrons
118Sn 24.22% is stable with 68 neutrons
119Sn 8.59% is stable with 69 neutrons
120Sn 32.58% is stable with 70 neutrons
122Sn 4.63% is stable with 72 neutrons
124Sn 5.79% is stable with 74 neutrons
126Sn trace 2.3×105 y β 126Sb
| references | in Wikidata

Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (for Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air.

The first alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of tin and copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper, antimony, and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are typically 60% or more tin. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Inorganic tin compounds are rather non-toxic. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal was used for food packaging as tin cans, which are actually made mostly of steel or aluminum. However, overexposure to tin may cause problems with metabolizing essential trace elements such as copper and zinc, and some organotin compounds can be almost as toxic as cyanide.

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