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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (Stannum in Latin) and atomic number 50. This silvery, malleable metal is not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion and can easily be soldered.

Tin (Wikipedia)
Tin,  50Sn
Sn-Alpha-Beta.jpg
General properties
Allotropesalpha, α (gray); beta, β (white)
Appearancesilvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)118.710(7)
Tin in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Ge

Sn

Pb
indiumtinantimony
Atomic number (Z)50
Groupgroup 14 (carbon group)
Periodperiod 5
Blockp-block
Element category  post-transition metal
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point505.08 K ​(231.93 °C, ​449.47 °F)
Boiling point2875 K ​(2602 °C, ​4716 °F)
Density (near r.t.)white, β: 7.265 g/cm3
gray, α: 5.769 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.99 g/cm3
Heat of fusionwhite, β: 7.03 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporizationwhite, β: 296.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacitywhite, β: 27.112 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, +1,+2, +3,+4 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.96
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 708.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1411.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2943.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius139±4 pm
Van der Waals radius217 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of tin
Other properties
Crystal structuretetragonal
Tetragonal crystal structure for tin

white (β)
Crystal structureface-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for tin

gray (α)
Speed of sound thin rod2730 m/s (at r.t.) (rolled)
Thermal expansion22.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity66.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity115 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderinggray: diamagnetic
white (β): paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility(white) +3.1·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Young's modulus50 GPa
Shear modulus18 GPa
Bulk modulus58 GPa
Poisson ratio0.36
Brinell hardness50–440 MPa
CAS Number7440-31-5
History
Discoveryaround 3500 BC
Main isotopes of tin
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
112Sn 0.97% stable
114Sn 0.66% stable
115Sn 0.34% stable
116Sn 14.54% stable
117Sn 7.68% stable
118Sn 24.22% stable
119Sn 8.59% stable
120Sn 32.58% stable
122Sn 4.63% stable
124Sn 5.79% stable
126Sn trace 2.3×105 y β 126Sb
| references

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air.

The first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of tin and copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper, antimony, and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are typically 60% or more tin and in the manufacture of transparent, electrically conducting films of indium tin oxide in optoelectronic applications. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is widely used for food packaging as tin cans. However, some organotin compounds can be almost as toxic as cyanide.

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