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Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (Stannum in Latin) and atomic number 50. This silvery, malleable metal is not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion and can easily be soldered.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
tin (noun)
a soft faintly bluish-white lustrous low-melting crystalline metallic element that is malleable and ductile at ordinary temperatures and that is used especially in containers, as a protective coating, in tinfoil, and in soft solders and alloys - see element table
a) a box, can, pan, vessel, or a sheet made of tinplate , broadly such a container of any metal (as aluminum)
b) a metal container and its contents - a tin of tomatoes
tin (verb)
transitive verb
to cover or plate with tin or a tin alloy
to put up or pack in tins - can tinned peaches
TIN (abbreviation)
taxpayer identification number
Tin (Wikipedia)
Tin,  50Sn
General properties
Pronunciation /ˈtɪn/
Allotropes alpha, α (gray); beta, β (white)
Appearance silvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Standard atomic weight (Ar, std) 118.710(7)
Tin in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Atomic number (Z) 50
Group, period group 14 (carbon group), period 5
Block p-block
Element category   post-transition metal
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Physical properties
Phase (at STP) solid
Melting point 505.08 K ​(231.93 °C, ​449.47 °F)
Boiling point 2875 K ​(2602 °C, ​4716 °F)
Density (near r.t.) white, β: 7.265 g/cm3
gray, α: 5.769 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 6.99 g/cm3
Heat of fusion white, β: 7.03 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization white, β: 296.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity white, β: 27.112 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3,2, 1, −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.96
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 708.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1411.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2943.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 217 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Crystal structure tetragonal
Tetragonal crystal structure for tin

white (β)
Crystal structure face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for tin

gray (α)
Speed of sound thin rod 2730 m/s (at r.t.) (rolled)
Thermal expansion 22.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 66.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 115 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering gray: diamagnetic
white (β): paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (white) +3.1·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 18 GPa
Bulk modulus 58 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.36
Brinell hardness 50–440 MPa
CAS Number 7440-31-5
Discovery around 3500 BC
Main isotopes of tin
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
112Sn 0.97% stable
114Sn 0.66% stable
115Sn 0.34% stable
116Sn 14.54% stable
117Sn 7.68% stable
118Sn 24.22% stable
119Sn 8.59% stable
120Sn 32.58% stable
122Sn 4.63% stable
124Sn 5.79% stable
126Sn trace 2.3×105 y β 126Sb
| references | in Wikidata

Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air.

The first alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of tin and copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper, antimony, and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are typically 60% or more tin. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Inorganic tin compounds are rather non-toxic. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal was used for food packaging as tin cans, which are actually made mostly of steel or aluminum. However, overexposure to tin may cause problems with metabolizing essential trace elements such as copper and zinc, and some organotin compounds can be almost as toxic as cyanide.

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